Deborah A. Sommer 司馬黛蘭

Associate Professor, Department of Religious Studies 宗教學系


Gettysburg College 葛德斯堡大學

300 North Washington Street

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 賓夕法尼亞

郵編 :17325-1486 美國  USA

Office Phone/電話 ( ): 717-337-6786 (direct line)

Email/電子郵箱 :,

Office: 309 Weidensall Hall


Spring 2014 office hours: Tuesdays 1:30-2:15 and 5:15-6:15; Weds. 5:15-6:15; Thurs. 1:30-2:15, or by chance at any time.



­Whenever possible, I provide links to full-text copies of articles below.  If the links are temporarily dysfunctional, you may find additional full-text articles on my page in the Religious Studies faculty section of Gettysburg College's "Cupola" repository ( of open-access documents.  


Full-text copies of selected works are also available on my page at   If you would like a scanned copy of any other articles listed below, just me an email at or


My main field of research is premodern Chinese intellectual history, and my major areas of interest are the ritual, visual, and somatic aspects of the Confucian tradition.  Currently I am completing a book project titled The Afterlife of Confucius: Depictions of the Sage Beyond the Analects, which explores the religious and philosophical significance of constructed imaginings of the body of Confucius.


Selected Publications.


2014.  "Conceptualizations of Earth and Land in Classical Chinese Texts."  In James Miller, Dan Smyer Yu, and Peter van der Veer, eds., Religion and Ecological Sustainability in China.  London: Routledge, forthcoming May 2014: 29-47.


2013.  "Taoism and the Arts" and "Confucianism and the Arts."  In Frank Burch Brown, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Religion and the Arts.   New York: Oxford University Press, 2013: 379-387 and 388-395, respectively.   To order this volume from Oxford, click here.


2013. "早期  '' ''之观" (Concepts of earth and land in early Chinese texts).  In 《中国宗教多元与生态可持续性发展研究》(Religious Diversity and Ecological Sustainability in China), edited by Su Faxiang 苏发祥and Dan Smyer Yu 郁丹.  (Beijing 北京: Xueyuan chubanshe 學苑出版社, 2013): 149-163.   For the English-language version of this volume forthcoming from Routledge in May 2014, see above.


2013.  "《庄子》中关于身体的诸概念" (Concepts of the body in the Zhuangzi).   中国哲学史 2013年第一期:45-52.  (Zhongguo zhexue shi [History of Chinese Philosophy] 2013.1): 45-52.  This is a Chinese version of the article "Concepts of the Body in the Zhuangzi" published in the second edition of Experimental Essays on Zhuangzi.  To read this Chinese version, click here.


2012.  "The Ji Self in Early Chinese Texts."  In Jason Dockstader, Hans Georg Möller, and Günter Wohlfart, eds., Selfhood East and West: De-Constructions of Identity.  Nordhausen, Germany: Traugott Bautz, 2012: 17-45.  Band 8 of the series "Weltphilosophien im Gespräch."  Selected papers from the eighteenth symposium of the Académie du Midi, "Identity--East and West," Alet-les-Bains, France, 2010. ISBN 3-88309-458-1,  Full text version of the article is available here courtesy of the copyright holder, Verlag Traugott Bautz GmbH, who has kindly given permission to make this article accessible.  To purchase a copy of this volume, please visit their website at http:/ or


2010.  "Concepts of the Body in the Zhuangzi."  In Victor Mair, ed., Experimental Essays on Zhuangzi, 2d ed.  Dunedin, FL: Three Pines Press, 2010: 212-228.   To purchase this book from Three Pines Press, click here.   A full-text copy of this article is also available on my page in the "Cupola" repository of open-access documents at Gettysburg College.


2009.  "Recent Western Studies of Zhu Xi"  (朱子研究在西方).   In Wu Zhen 吴震, ed., 宋代新儒學的精神世界:以朱熹為中心》(Song Dynasty Neo-Confucianism: A Focus on Zhu Xi).  Shanghai: East China Normal University Publishing Company 上海:華東師範大學出版社, 2009: 35-51.


2008.  “Boundaries of the Ti Body.”  Asia Major 21.1 (2008): 293-324.  Link to the free full-text article is courtesy of the Asia Major website.


2008.  "Ming Taizu's Legacy as Iconoclast."    In Sarah Schneewind, ed., Long Live the Emperor!  Uses of the Ming Founder across Six Centuries of East Asian History.  Minneapolis: Society for Ming Studies, 2008: 73-86.   Ming Studies Research Series, No. 4.  (This is the same article published in Ming Studies 50 (Fall 2008): 91-106.)    To order a copy of this volume from the Society for Ming Studies, click here.


2007.  文革中的批孔運動和孔子形像的演變 (Images for Iconoclasts: Depictions of Confucius in the Cultural Revolution).  In Chinese.   Henry Yan, trans.  In Yongyi Song 宋永, ed., 文化大革命: 歷史真相和集體記憶 (The Cultural Revolution: Historical Truth & Collective Memories). 2 vols.  Hong Kong: Tianyuan shuwu 田園書屋, 2007: 822-840.


2007.  "Images for Iconoclasts: Images of Confucius in the Cultural Revolution."  East-West Connections: Review of Asian Studies 7.1 (2007): 1-23.   Publication of the Asian Studies Development Program.  To download this article from read the East-West Connections website, click here.


2006.  "早期儒家的仪式和牺牲:与精神世界的联系"  (Chinese translation of my 2004 article "Ritual and Sacrifice in Early Confucianism: Contacts with the Spirit World."  Translated by Cheng Gongrang 程恭让, Li Shumin 李淑敏, and Liu Junhua 刘君花of Capital Normal University 首都師範大學 , Beijing.  Published in Duo Yuan 多元 /Pluris (2006, pp. 188-202), an annual journal produced by the Philosophy Department 哲學系 of Capital Normal University and Capital Normal University Press首都師範大學出版社.


2006.  "Angkor Wat" and "Borobudur."  In Religion Past and Present: Encyclopedia of Theology and Religion.  12 vols.  Leiden: Brill, 2006.   Previously published in German in 1999 in the Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, as noted below.


2005.   "Decentering Imperial Women: Confucian Fertility Sacrifices in the Ming Dynasty."  Alam-e-niswan/Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies 12.2 (2005): 17-29.


2005.  "Cheng Hao," "Cheng Yi," and "Iconography: Confucian Iconography."  In the Encyclopedia of Religion, 2d edition.  New York: Macmillan, 2005.


2005.  "Chinese Religions in World Religions Textbooks."  Religious Studies Review 31.1-2 (2005): 4-8.  Access this article at the Wiley Online Library here.


2004.  "The Art and Politics of Painting Qianlong at Chengde" and "A Letter from a Jesuit Painter in Qianlong's Court at Chengde."  In New Qing Imperial History: The Making of Inner Asian Empire at Qing Chengde.  Edited by James A. Millward, Ruth W. Dunnell, Mark C. Elliott, and Philippe Foret.  (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004), pp. 136-145 and 171-184, respectively. 

These articles were written for the 1994 NEH Summer Institute "Reading the Manchu Summer Palace at Chengde: Art, Ritual, and Rulership in Eighteenth Century China and Inner Asia."   For reviews of this book, see Nicola di Cosmo's review in Journal of Asian Studies 66 (May 2007): 550-552.

To order a copy of New Qing Imperial History from Routledge, click here.


2004.  "Ming Taizu's Legacy as Iconoclast."  Ming Studies 50 (Fall 2004): 91-106.  To visit the Ming Studies website, click here.


2004.  "Ritual and Sacrifice in Early Confucianism: Contacts with the Spirit World," in Confucian Spirituality, Volume I, edited by Mary Evelyn Tucker and Tu Wei-ming. (New York: Crossroad Publishing Company, 2003), pp. 197-218.    Also provided all cover photos and inside photos for both Volume I and Volume II (Volume II is by the same editors and was published by Crossroad in 2004).

For reviews of Volume 1, see the following:

John Makeham, in Sophia: International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, Metaphysical Theology and Ethics 43.2 (October 2004):142-146.


2003.  Eighty-seven entries (36,000 words, or 68 pages) for the Routledge Curzon Encyclopedia of Confucianism edited by Yao Xinzhong.  (London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003).   2 vols. 

For reviews of this work, see the following:

Joseph A. Adler, in Religious Studies Review 30.4 (October 2004): 267-268.

J. M. Boyle, in Choice 41.9 (May 2004):1635-1636.

Booklist Reference Books Bulletin 100.12 (February 15, 2004): 1093.

John Berthrong, in Journal of Chinese Religions 32 (2004): 286-290.


2002.  "Destroying Confucius: Iconoclasm in the Confucian Temple" in On Sacred Grounds:  Culture, Society, Politics, and the Formation of the Cult of Confucius, edited by Thomas A. Wilson.  Cambridge: Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2002:  95-133.

         For reviews of this book, see the following:

                  Romeyn Taylor, in Journal of Asian Studies 64.2 (May 2005):  463-464.

Kai-wing Chow, in Journal of Chinese Religions 32 (2004):  284-285.        

Keith Knapp, in Religious Studies Review 30.2-3 (July 2004):  237-238.

James McMullen, in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 67.3 (2004): 419-421.

Joseph A. Adler, "The Confucian Body," in China Review International 10.2 (Fall 2003): 351-362.


2001.  "Warrants for Women's Religious Authority in Chinese Religious Traditions."  In Azza Karam, ed., Woman's Place: Religious Women as Public Actors. (New York: World Conference on Religion and Peace, Women's Program, 2001), pp. 67-79.


1999.  "Angkor Wat" and "Borobudur."  In the German edition of the Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (RGG).  Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1999.


1995.  "邱濬与明代儒像废存之议" (Qiu Jun and Confucian iconoclasm in the Ming dynasty).  Translated into Chinese by Wong Sin-Kiong 黄贤强.  In Zhu Ruikai 祝瑞开, ed., 《宋明思想和中华文明》 (Song and Ming thought and Chinese culture).  (Shanghai 上海: Xuelin chubanshe 学林出版社, 1995), pp. 437-444.


1994.  "Images into Words: Ming Confucian Iconoclasm." National Palace Museum Bulletin 29.1-2 (1994): 1-24.



Selected book reviews

Forthcoming 2014.  Review of Dao Companion to Neo-Confucian Philosophy.  John Makeham, ed.  (Dordrecht: Springer, 2010.  xliii + 488 pages).  Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13.2 (June 2014).


2006.  Review of Hsieh Liang-tso and the Analects of Confucius: Humane Learning as a Religious Quest, by Thomas Selover (New York: American Academy of Religion and Oxford University Press, 2005).   Journal of Asian Studies 65.3 (August 2006): 611-612.


2004.  Review of Rivers of Paradise: Moses, Buddha, Confucius, Jesus, and Muhammad as Religious Founders.  Edited by David Noel Freedman and Michael J. McClymond.  (Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2001).  Journal of Chinese Philosophy 31.4 (December 2004): 549-552.


2001.  Review of Meeting of Minds: Intellectual and Religious Interaction in East Asian Traditions of Thought, edited by Irene Bloom and Joshua Fogel  (Columbia University Press, 1997).   Philosophy East and West 51.2 (2001): 318-320.


2001.  Review of The Religious Thought of Chu Hsi, by Julia Ching (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).  Journal of Chinese Religions 29 (2001): 286-288.


1999.  Review of Transformations of the Confucian Way, by John Berthrong (Westview Press, 1998).   Journal of Chinese Religions 27 (1999): 130-131.


1998.  Review of Mencius and Early Chinese Thought, by Kwong-loi Shun (Stanford University Press, 1997).  Journal of Chinese Religions 26 (1998): 184-185.



Recent conference participation  会议

Nov. 23-26, 2013.  Discussant for the panel "The Neo-Confucian Problem of Evil."  Confucian Traditions Group.  Annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion, Baltimore.


October 11-13, 2013.  "Studies of Yan Fu 嚴復in the West." 2013.  Bilingual keynote presentation in Chinese and English.  Presented at the conference "严复:中国与世界国际学术会议" (International Conference on Yan Fu: China and the World).  Convened at the Institute for the Humanities, Peking University北京大学人文学苑 .  Sponsored by the Institute of Modern History of Academia Sinica, Taiwan 台湾中央研究院近代史研究所 and by the Fujian Educational Press福建教育出版社.


June 28, 2013.  "西方文化中的各种孔子形象" (Depictions of Confucius in the West.)  In Chinese.  Paper presented at a half-day forum on philosophy and the arts led by President Zhen Zhongyi 甄忠义 at the Hebei Academy of Fine Arts 河北美术学院.


June 24-26, 2013.  "Western Studies of the Qingming Festival."   Paper presented (in Chinese) at the Filial Piety Culture Week Conference 慈孝文化学术研究会, Jiexiu, Mianshan, Shanxi Province, 山西,介休,绵山 China.  Sponsored by the Shanxi Province Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference 中国人民政治协商会议山西省委员会, the Research Association of the Culture of Emperor Yan and the Yellow Emperor 中华炎黄文化研究会, the Advanced Research Institute for Humanities and Religious Studies at Beijing Normal University 北京师范大学人文宗教高等研究院, the Party Committee of Jinzhong City 中共晋中市委员会, and the People's Government of Jinzhong City 晋中市人民政府.


May 31-June 1, 2013.  "Metaphor and Inscription in the Thought of Qiu Jun."  Paper presented by invitation at the conference “Reading, Textual Production, and Literati Culture in Late Imperial China.”  Cosponsored by the Asian Studies Program of Penn State, the Confucius Institute of Penn State, and the Department of Chinese Culture of Hong Kong Polytechnic University.  Conference convened at Penn State, State College, Pennsylvania.


April 4-5, 2013.  Moderator for the panel "Facts and Values in Neo-Confucianism."  International Conference on Nature and Value in Chinese and Western Philosophies, the Inaugural Rutgers Workshop on Chinese Philosophy.  Rutgers University.


Nov. 2, 2012.  "The Body of Confucius in Han Apocrypha."  Paper presented at the Columbia University Seminar on Neo-Confucian Studies.  Heyman Center for the Humanities, Columbia University.


Sep. 27-29, 2012.  "Hidden Violence: Reinventing Visual Histories of Desecration at Qufu."  Paper presented at the panel “Violence Perpetrated and Reinvented: Cultural Revolution Narratives of Confucius’s Birthplace.”  Also served as panelist at the round table “Whither Confucianism: The State of Confucianism and Contemporary Chinese Politics and Society.”  New York Conference on Asian Studies, State University of New York at New Paltz.


March 6-9, 2012.  “Ritualized Landscapes?  Conceptualizations of the Earth and the Ritual Management of Natural Resources in Classical Chinese Texts.”  Paper presented at the conference and book workshop “Religious Diversity and Ecological Sustainability.”  Conference convened at the Central University for Nationalities, Beijing.  Conference sponsored by the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Göttingen; Central University for Nationalities; and the Yale Forum on Religion and Ecology.


June 7-8, 2011.  "A Body of Signs: Depictions of Confucius in the Apocrypha."  Paper presented at the International conference "Body and Person in China," Vilnius University, Lithuania.  I was one of three co-organizers for this conference.


June 7-8, 2011.  Co-organizer (with Vytis Silius and Loreta Poskaite of Vilnius University) of the international invited conference "Body and Person in China."  International invited conference sponsored by the Confucius Institute and the Centre of Oriental Studies of Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.  Convened at Vilnius University.


May 4, 5, and 6, 2011.  Series of lectures presented to undergraduate and postgraduate students at the Chiang Ching-kuo International Sinological Centre, Charles University, Prague.  May 4: "Beyond the Analects: Unusual Depictions of Confucius."  May 5: Images for Iconoclasts: Depicting Confucius in the Cultural Revolution."  May 6: "Depictions of Confucius in the West."


Apr. 6, 2011.  "Depictions of Confucius in the West."  University of Iceland, Reykjavik.  Public lecture sponsored by the Northern Lights Confucius Institute of the University of Iceland.


Mar. 30-April 1, 2011.  Three-day series of lectures and seminars at Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia.  Mar. 30: "Relations between the Human World and the World of Spirits in Confucianism."  Mar. 31: "Depictions of Confucius in the Cultural Revolution."   April 1: "Concepts and Depictions of the Human Body in Confucianism and other Schools of Chinese Thought."  Sponsored by the Asian Studies program at Tartu University.


Mar. 18, 2011.  Attended the Fourth Nordic Confucius Institute Working Meeting, Helsinki, Finland as one of the representatives from the Confucius Institute at Vilnius University, Lithuania.  Convened at the Confucius Institute at the University of Helsinki.


Feb. 28- Mar. 4, 2011.  "Tales of Confucius at Lotus Tower Temple."  Invited paper presented at the international conference "The Lotus Sutra and Confucianism."  Sponsored by Rissho Kosei-kai.  Shonan Conference Center, Kamakura, Japan.


Dec. 2-3, 2010.  "Confucianism and Globalization: The Survival and Transformation of Traditional Cultures in Hypermodern China."  Paper presentation at the conference "Challenges of the Modern World: Dynamics for the Humanities."  Institute for the Humanities, Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania.


Sep. 23-25, 2010.  "Confucius in Tibet: Chinese Sources for Understanding Confucius in the Bon Tradition."  Paper presentation at the conference "Buddhism in Nordland."  Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia.


May 24-28, 2010.  "Self and Embodiment in Early Chinese Texts: The Concept of Ji as Self."  Paper presentation at the conference "Self and Identity East and West."  18th Symposium of the Académie du Midi.  Organized by the Department of Philosophy at the University of Trier.  Alet-les-Bains, France.


Dec. 28-31, 2009.  "聖人孔子游西藏" (Sages and Apocryphal Canons: Confucius in Tibet).   Paper presentation (in Chinese) at the conference "The Canon, Sages, and Tradition in Chinese Culture."   Institute of Chinese Philosophy, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.


Nov. 5-7, 2009.  "Concepts of the Body in the Zhuangzi."  First International Summit on Laozi and Daoist Culture.  China World Hotel and Great Hall of the People, Beijing.


June 14-17, 2009.  "Secular and Sacred: Contemporary Confucian Ritual Revivals in China.”  Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Asian and Comparative Philosophy.  Asilomar Conference Center, Monterey, California.


April 27-28, 2009.  "Confucius in Tibet."   Paper presented at the 2009 international colloquium of the Société Européene pour l'Etude des Civilisations de l'Himalaya et de l'Asie Centrale.  Conference theme: La creation artistique face aux contraintes politiques et religieuses, de l'Himalaya à l'Asie central, de l'antiquité à nos jours.  Collège de France, Paris.



Recent Public Lectures 讲座

October 10, 2013.  "西方世界中的儒家文化"  (Understandings of Confucius and Confucianism in the West.)   Lecture presented at the Institute of Ethnology and Sociology 民族学与社会学学院, Central University for Nationalities 中央民族大学, Beijing.  For a poster for this event, click here.


Dec. 14, 2012.  西方文化中的孔子” (Confucius in the West).  In Chinese.  Fujian Hwa Nan Women’s College 福建華南女子學院, Fuzhou, China.


March 16, 2012.  早期中國文獻中的身體與自我概念  (Concepts of Body and Self in Early Chinese Texts).   In Chinese.  Sponsored by the Chinese Philosophy Institute 中國哲學研究所of the Department of Philosophy, Sun Yat-sen University 中山大學哲學系, Guangzhou, China.  Click here for a poster designed for this event by Prof. Yang Rong.


March 15, 2012.  《論語》之外的孔子” (Confucius Beyond the Analects).  In Chinese.  Guangzhou City Polytechnic 廣州市職業學院, Guangzhou.  Sponsored by the Classical Chinese Studies Lecture Series 國學經典講習團of the Chinese Studies Institute 國學院at Guangzhou City Polytechnic.   Click here for a poster for this event created by Prof. Yang Rong.


March 9, 2012.  孔子在西藏” (Confucius in Tibet).  In Chinese.  Lecture presented at the Institute of Ethnology and Sociology民族学与社会学学院, Central University for Nationalities (Minzu University 中央民族大學), Beijing.


Dec. 14, 2011.  西方文化中的孔子” (Confucius in the West).  In Chinese.  Fujian Hwa Nan Women’s College 福建華南女子學院, Fuzhou, China.


Nov. 17, 2011.  東歐漢學的過去與現在” (Chinese Studies in Eastern Europe, Past and Present).  In Chinese.  Sponsored by the Department of Philosophy, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.  Click here for a poster designed by colleagues at the Department of Philosophy for this event.


July 25-29, 2011.  Lecturer on Confucianism at the Tallinn Summer School "World Philosophy: East Asian Thought Systems."  Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia.


April 6, 2011.  "Depictions of Confucius in the West."  University of Iceland, Reykjakik.  Public lecture sponsored by the Northern Lights Confucius Institute.


Nov. 26, 2010.  "Images of Confucius, Past and Present."  Presentation made at the inauguration of the Confucius Institute, Centre of Oriental Studies, Vilnius University.


Nov. 24, 2010.  "Liu Xiaobo and the Nobel Peace Prize in the Media."  Institute of Political Science and International Relations, Vilnius University.


Nov. 17, 2010.  "How to Steal a Sheep:  An Introduction to Confucian and Legalist Thought in China."  Lecture presented at the Faculty of Law, Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania.


Nov. 1, 2010.  "How to Kill Confucius: Images of Violence from the 1974 Anti-Confucius Movement."  Department of Philosophy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.  November 1, 2010.


Oct. 28, 2010.  "Revitalization of Confucian Rituals in Contemporary China: Explorations of a Participant-Observer."  Center of Social Anthropology, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania.  October 28, 2010.


Oct. 27, 2010.  "Confucianism and Globalization:  The Revitalization of Traditional Cultures in Modern China."  Public lecture presented at the Center of Oriental Studies, Vilnius University, Lithuania, as part of "Kinijos Dienos Lietuvoje 2010" (Lithuania-China Forum/China Culture Week in Lithuania 2010).  Sponsored by the Center of Oriental Studies, the Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Lithuania, and the Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.


August 28, 2010.  "Where is 'evil' or 'the devil' in Chinese Thought?"  Lecture presented at the World Religions Workshop at Devil's Pit at Menuo Juodaragis (Black Horned-Moon Festival), Trakai, Lithuania. 


Feb. 26, 2010.  "The Afterlife of Confucius: Images of the Master, Past and Present."  Peggy and Marc Spiegel Center for Global and International Programs, Roger Williams University.  Bristol, Rhode Island.


Jan. 7, 2010.  "文革中的批林批孔和孔子形象的演變" (Depictions of Confucius during the Anti-Confucius Movement of the Cultural Revolution).   Lecture presented at the Institute for Chinese Philosophy, Sun Yat-sen University.   Guangzhou, China.


Jan. 5, 2010.  "西方文化中的孔子畫像" (Illustrated Depictions of Confucius in the West).  Lecture presented at the Institute for Chinese Philosophy, Sun Yat-sen University.  Guangzhou, China.


Nov. 5, 2009.  "西方文化中的孔子畫像"  (Illustrated Depictions of Confucius in the West).  In Chinese.  Lecture presented at the Center for Chinese Studies Abroad, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing..


May 5, 2009.  "Images of Confucius, Past and Present."  Keynote speech for the inauguration of Pace University's Confucius Institute.  New York City.



Academic positions and professional experience

2003 to present.  Associate Professor, Department of Religion, Gettysburg College.  Chair from 2005 to 2009.


2005-present, 1999-2002.  Co-chair or co-organizer for the University Seminar on Neo-Confucian Studies, Columbia University.  Responsibilities include locating speakers, maintaining an international electronic mailing list for circulating papers, and co-chairing sessions for a monthly seminar on Chinese intellectual history convened at Columbia University.


2010-2011.   Visiting Fulbright Professor, Centre of Oriental Studies, Vilnius University, Lithuania.  Courses taught in Fall 2010: Confucianism (advanced undergraduate and postgraduate seminar taught in classical Chinese), Visual Propaganda in Modern China (postgraduate students).  Courses taught in Spring 2011: Chinese Buddhism (undergraduate lecture course), Seminar in Chinese Buddhist Texts (seminar in classical Chinese, for undergraduate and postgraduate students); Body Studies and Representations of the Body (postgraduate students).


Fall 2004.  International Fellow 國際問題研究所研究員 of the Institute for International Research (IIR) at the Hopkins-Nanjing Center, Nanjing 南京大學 - 約翰斯。鶴普金斯大學中美文化研究中心 .   The Center is managed jointly by Johns Hopkins University and Nanjing University; funding for the IIR is also provided by the Luce and Ford Foundations.  Research project: "The Face of Confucius as the Face of the Nation: Cultural and Political Meanings of Modern Representations of the Sage."


1998-2003.   Assistant Professor, Department of Religion, Gettysburg College.  1998-2003.


1999-2002.  Member of the Board, Board of Directors, ASIANetwork Consortium.


1993-98.   Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Butler University.


1992-93.  Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Religion and Philosophy, Southwestern University.


1991-92.  Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Religion, St. Lawrence University.


1986-1988.  Translator, Department of Painting and Calligraphy, National Palace Museum, Taiwan.


11/85-7/86.  Assistant to the Project Editor, Encyclopedia of Religion, Macmillan, New York.




1993.   Ph.D., Department of Religion, Columbia University.  Thesis:  "Ch'iu Chün's (1421-1495) On the Conduct of Sacrificial Offerings." 


1987.   Master of Philosophy, Columbia University.  Field exams: Chinese and Japanese religion and intellectual history.


1984-1985.  One year of Chinese language training at the Inter-University Program (the Stanford Center), Taipei.


1983.  Master of Arts with Distinction, Columbia University.  Thesis: "Hsün Tzu on the Nature, the Mind, and Self-cultivation."


1978.   Bachelor of Arts (Phi Beta Kappa), Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University.  Junior year abroad student at the University of Lancaster, Lancaster, England, 1976-1977.






This page was last updated on March 26, 2014.  Page maintained by Deborah Sommer.