1. Dutch 16th- 17th Century Alphabet

2. Early Plow From Pennsylvania ( Museum)

3. Two Early Trade Guns

4. Early Native American Weapons

5. 16th Century New World Slave Ship

6. Smallpox Single Woman

7. Smallpox Group of People

8. Woman And Kids Diseased

9. Asian Cockroach

10. Grazing Cattle

11.  Two Sheep

12.  Boars

13. Raising Horses on to a Boat

14. Potatoes

15. Sugarcane

16. Maize

17. Christopher Columbus

18. New World With Sailors and Columbus

19. Sailors and Indians Meeting

20. Original Cherokee Syllabary

21. Lendeert Bronck House. Coxsackie, NY

22. Boston Harbor

23. Drawing of New York Harbor



1. Columbus and the Age of Discovery [video] The Columbian Exchange part 6. 

        Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1991.

2. Cronon, William. Changes in the Land. 1st ed. New York : Hill and Wang, 1983.

3. Crosby, Alfred W. Germs, Seeds, and Animals: Studies in Ecological History.

        Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe Inc., 1994.

4. Crosby, Alfred. The Columbian Exchange : Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 .

        30th Aniv. ed. Westport: Praeger, 2003.

5. Harley, J.B. Maps and The Columbian Encounter.

        Milwaukee: Golda Meir Library, 1990.

6. Jane, Cecil . The Journal Of Christopher Columbus: Translated From the Spanish.

         London: Anthony Blond And the Orion Press, 1960.

7. Lunenfeld, Marvin. 1492, Discovery, Invasion, Encounter.

        Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company, 1991.

8. Riley, Carrol . Man Across the Sea: Problems of Pre Columbian Contacts.

        Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971.

9. Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian legacy.

        1st ed. New York : Alfred A Knopf, 1990.

10. Shannon, Timothy . Atlantic Lives: A Comparative Approach to Early America

        New York: Pearson/ Longman, 2004.


1. Columbus and the Age of Discovery

2. The Columbian Biological Exchange

3. The Columbian Exchange. Changes Brought about by Encounters Between "Old" and "New" Worlds.

4. The Columbian Exchange. Dr. Horace K. Houston for use in his History 2010 class, the U.S. to 1877

5. The Columbian Exchange. John Tomaske. 1998





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